The experts found that the number of threatened species has doubled since the last global shark study in 2014 while the number of endangered and critically endangered species has more than tripled. Three species have been classified as “possibly extinct”, not having been recorded for 80 years on average. All threatened sharks and rays are being depleted by overfishing, with habitat loss and destruction and climate change as well as pollution compounding the risks, affecting 1 in 3 and 1 in 10 species respectively.
Organisations such as WWF urge governments and regional fisheries bodies to stop overfishing and prevent a global extinction crisis. Science-based fishing limits, effective marine protected areas, and approaches that reduce or eliminate fishing mortality are needed to minimize mortality of threatened species. Dr. Andy Cornish, leader of WWF’s global shark and ray conservation programme said: “The alarm bells could not be ringing louder for sharks and rays. We are on the cusp of starting to lose this ancient group of creatures, species by species right here, right now. Starting now, we need far greater action by governments to limit fishing and bring these functionally important animals back from the brink.”
While the governments in shark-catching countries and regional fisheries management bodies have largely moved in the right direction to address overfishing over the past decade, they typically fall short of implementing measures to directly control the amount of fishing, such as through catch limits. The end result – making sharks and rays the second most threatened vertebrate group on the planet – is alarming even if predictable, with too little happening too late.
Dr. Cornish added: “At the national level, fisheries and environmental authorities need to work together to stop overfishing and halt further declines. This is a pivotal moment in time. If we act now, we still have a good chance to save these predators that play such an important role in ocean health. However, if the status quo continues with slow incremental improvements in management, nobody should be surprised when shark and ray species start disappearing on our watch. This study is a huge wake up call! All countries and regional fisheries bodies that catch sharks and rays need to step up and take responsibility.”
The most endangered sharks and rays will need recovery plans that reduce mortality from fishing to as close to zero as possible. For those species that can still sustain fishing, well-enforced science-based catch limits can prevent declines and even lead to recoveries. Where catch limits are not feasible, protecting critical habitats for sharks and rays and reducing incidental fishing mortality (e.g. through catch mitigation measures) can reduce overfishing.
For the full shark study, ‘Overfishing drives over one-third of all sharks and rays toward a global extinction crisis’, click here.
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Photography courtesy of Unsplash.